The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
ĽName: Ulysses Simpson Grant

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Grant was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, and spent his boyhood in Georgetown, Ohio, where his father had a tanning business. Young Grant attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, graduating in 1843 near the middle of his class. At this point, he did not want a military career, but an education, followed by a college professorship. Instead, he was sent to Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis, Missouri. He saw duty in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) under the command of General Zachary Taylor, then General Winfield Scott. During the war, Grant was twice promoted in recognition of his bravery and talented leadership. The Mexican-American War proved to be a training ground for him as well as other future Civil War officers.

After the war, Grant was stationed at Sacketts Harbor, New York, Detroit, Michigan, and Fort Vancouver, Washington. At Fort Vancouver, he dearly missed his wife, was bored by the monotonous duty, and began drinking. He resigned his commission in 1854 and returned to Missouri where he unsuccessfully tried his hand at farming, then real estate, before moving to Galena, Illinois, to work in his father’s tannery.

At the beginning of the Civil War, Grant was appointed commander of the 21st Illinois Regiment and saw service fighting Confederate guerrillas in Missouri. In August 1861, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers by President Lincoln. He quickly led his troops to capture Paducah, Kentucky, but had to retreat after a Confederate counterassault at Belmont, Missouri. In February 1862, Grant captured Forts Donelson and Henry in Tennessee, handing the Union its first major victories and earning himself national recognition and a promotion to major general.

In October 1862, he was named commander of the Department of Tennessee and placed in charge of the Vicksburg campaign. The surrender of Vicksburg on 4 July 1863 was one of the turning points of the Civil War. In March 1864 Grant was promoted to lieutenant and commander of all Union armies. Giving the Confederates no rest, Grant chased Robert E. Lee across Virginia, while Union General William Tecumseh Sherman advanced through Atlanta to the Atlantic. Finally, on 9 April 1865 Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, and the Civil War was over.

In July 1866 Grant received the rank of full general of the army, the first American to hold that distinction since George Washington. His postwar duties included overseeing Indian Affairs and protection of the transcontinental railroad workers in the West and the enforcement of Reconstruction policies in the South. Although he had doubts about Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction policies, he accompanied the President on his infamous "swing ‘round the circle" during the 1866 campaign. Grant became an integral part of the battle between Congress and the White House over control of Reconstruction policy. In August 1867, Johnson suspended Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, who had been working with the Radical Republicans in Congress against Johnson, and appointed Grant as Stanton’s ad interim replacement. The General was uncomfortable being placed in that awkward position, but he dutifully served for five months. When the Senate refused to consent to Stanton’s removal, Grant resigned. Thereafter, Grant sided with the Radical Republicans and supported Johnson’s impeachment after he violated the Tenure of Office Act in 1868.

Although previously a nominal Democrat, Grant became the Republican presidential nominee in 1868. He easily defeated his Democratic challenger, Horatio Seymour, and was soundly reelected in 1872, running against maverick newspaper editor Horace Greeley. The Grant presidency had some successes, such as the Treaty of Washington (1871), but is remembered mainly for a series of scandals—Credit Mobilier, the Sanborn contracts, the Whiskey Ring, and the Belknap bribery. Other important events during his tenure include the ratification of the 15th Amendment, the Panic of 1873, and the Resumption of Specie Act (1875).

When he left office, Grant embarked on a triumphant two-year world tour. In 1880, he was the top candidate for the Republican presidential nomination. After leading on 35 ballots, he finally lost to a dark-horse candidate, James Garfield, thus ending his hopes for a third term. His business ventures in retirement were no more successful than in his earlier days, and in 1884 he was forced to take bankruptcy when his son’s Wall Street firm failed. In his final years, he penned his Personal Memoirs, which are well respected for both content and literary style. He died at Mount McGregor, New York.

Robert C. Kennedy, HarpWeek

Sources consulted:  David Donald, "Ulysses S. Grant," on the Grolier’s On-Line website


Ulysses Simpson Grant
(27 April 1822 - 23 July 1885)
Source:  Harper's Weekly


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